Psychopaths and Power: Hand, meet Glove- pt 1: Civilisation and the Rise of the Psychopaths

(This is the second instalment in a series of articles. The initial article can be found here. The third instalment and part 2 of this article is linked at the foot of this article)

Let's start by going right back in history to even before 'history'. Has it ever struck you as odd that 99% of human history is called “Pre-history”? History, as we know it, i.e. the 1%, is also called “written history” or "recorded history"and only came into being with so called 'civilisation' which occurred, depending on the part of the world you look at, between 10,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and 2,000 years ago in parts of Europe. North America, Australia and other parts of the world has seen the introduction of 'civilisation' even more recently than that. Everything before 10,000 years ago, 'pre-history', is often dismissed as not important or irrelevant. There is a reason for that which, I hope, will become apparent by the end of this essay.

It is crucial to note that with the introduction of 'civilisation' to tribal or traditional societies came also the introduction of genocide. Genocide is a primary 'flag' of psychopathy at work. Native populations the world over succumbed under the onslaught of civilisation primarily because they did not have an understanding of organised psychopathy. The North American Indians, for instance, never lost a major battle against the white invaders. But they lost out continually because they made treaties with these psychopaths; the psychopathic representatives of a psychopathic culture. The lesson for today, individually and culturally, is never make a deal with a recognised liar. And certainly never make a deal that you cannot enforce. It's worse than a waste of time, for you and the generations that follow (if indeed there are any to follow).

Dresden (source)

It is well to remember that we evolved over hundreds of thousands of years to cope extremely well with the conditions that prevailed before 'history' or civilisation existed. In other words, we have evolved, not only physically but also psychologically, to cope with a far different world than the one we inhabit today. This has had a profound impact on us, our society and our environment.

With the advent of civilisation came two things that have had extraordinarily adverse effects on everyone ever since. Originally, civilisation came about once tribal peoples stopped their nomadic existence and became farmers. People's diets changed to incorporate relatively large amounts of grains and starches; i.e. carbohydrates. The so-called “diseases of civilisation” are metabolic diseases. They result from a breakdown of our natural evolutionary metabolism. They include cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, dental caries, dementia, arthritis, you name it, came along with it. The diseases came about as a result of this fundamental diet change.

Anthropologists use this information to determine whether a people were nomads or agrarians through bone analysis. They can observe the presence or absence of any of the above diseases together with their stature. Peoples stature diminished as they became agrarian based. As the carbohydrates we are eating become increasingly refined together with the increased consumption of refined cane sugar and even more recently high fructose corn syrup, the attendant diseases are becoming evermore prevalent. But we may come back to these diseases of civilisation in a later essay because they are linked dynamically to the second disaster that befell us with the advent of civilisation.

This second disaster, the subject of this essay, was the rise of the psychopaths. Psychopaths are people without a conscience; without compassion for others; without a sense of shame or guilt. The majority of people carry within them the concern for others that evolution has instilled in us to allow us to survive as groups. This is the evolutionary basis of the quality of compassion. Compassion is not just a matter of virtue; it is a matter of survival. Psychopaths do not have this concern for others and so are a danger to the survival of the rest of us.

Psychopaths, as an homogeneous group, would not survive one or two generations by themselves. They are motivated only by self interest and would exploit each other till they ended up killing each other. Which gives one pause for thought! They are parasites and need the rest of us to survive. In doing so they compromise the survival of the whole species.

Psychopaths represent approximately between 1% and 20% of the population in western countries depending on whose research you go by and also depending on how broad a definition of the condition you adopt. It is generally held, though, that there is a hard core of between 4-6% or so and maybe another 10 -15% of the population that is functionally psychopathic in that they will exploit their fellow human being without hesitation.

The hard core are untreatable. They see nothing wrong with who or what they are. The other 10-15% group may be persuaded to act differently in a different environment or a different society. The second group act out of a misguided strategy of survival. I'll concentrate on the hard core 5% and the singular fact that must be borne in mind with them is that they are incapable of change for the better. They cannot reform or be reformed. And you can take that to the bank in every case! They must never be trusted.

Documented liars like those that populate the current Kiev regime can be confidently assumed to be psychopaths from their behaviour and so will never negotiate in good faith and will always renege on any deals they make. The same can be said for the governments of the US and UK who back them. Historically, they have never made a treaty that they did not subsequently break.

Before settlement, when people lived in tribes, individual psychopaths were readily recognised and marginalised or exiled, if not 'disappeared'. In a society where everybody knows everybody else, it leaves little room for a psychopath to hide and offers little opportunity to (mis)lead the direction of the whole society. Psychopaths rely on a continuing supply of victims. A small society does not meet that need for a continuing fresh supply of unsuspecting victims. So they are readily seen for what they are; parasites, thieves and liars. With no sense of compassion for others or sense of duty towards others, they stand out in an otherwise co-operative and mutually supportive society and are recognised for what they are; a danger to all. Their harm to others is therefore minimised.

Tribal societies have to recognise and deal with reality and pass on their collective wisdom from one generation to the next to survive. Knowledge of how to recognise and deal with psychopaths was part of that wisdom. If it wasn't, the tribes and societies would not have survived. That collective knowledge was, unsurprisingly, lost with the introduction of civilisation and accounts for a lot of the subsequent trials and outrages that fill the 'news' every day.

It is important to note that pre-history societies were very successful because they were sustainable. They survived for hundreds of thousands of years. We need to relearn and pass on this knowledge of psychopathy between us if we want many more generations to follow us.

With the settlement that went along with farming, the situation changed from a nomadic existence. Specialisation was imposed and there came a need for organisation. Because some were involved with raising food full time for everybody, and the 'working day' had gone from 1-2 hours to 8 or more, they did not have time to make other things for themselves. Others not involved in farming needed to developed skills to trade for food. To facilitate all this trade that followed, there was a need for 'middle-men' and for some sort of governance. The best time to plant crops became critical and so a class of 'star-gazers' arose who then mystified their astronomical knowledge and leveraged it into a religious/astrological control system. A priest class arose and hierarchical structures quickly began to form.

Hierarchies introduce layers of management and are by their nature inefficient when compared to self-organizing structures such as tribal societies. But hierarchies wield power and were attractive to those that desired power. Money was invented and soon its accumulation and manipulation became a source of power, too. Psychopaths desire power over other people above all things. So they were attracted to these structures and to the money. And they still are. So today we find a preponderance of psychopaths in banking and commerce; politics and government; military and para-military; and, of course, law and religion. Anywhere there is power, really.

Settlements brought larger populations together and with the assortment of specialisations, it became quite easy for psychopaths to hide their natures and their priorities within the society. They came to control the culture and therefore the education and what was passed on and what wasn't. And what wasn't passed on, of course, included knowledge of psychopathy. It is still the case. There is not a peep about it in DSM IVR, for instance. (Sociopathy is mentioned but this is a more restricted definition)
Today's students are not taught about psychopathy, of course, nor how tribal societies survived and thrived nor anything to do with how our society really works today i.e. how to be a capitalist including the how and why of banking, finance and investment. They are taught instead how to get a job.

Psychopaths learn that they are different from other people because they see others reacting emotionally to situations that they do not. They quickly adapt by mimicking the emotional responses of others and copying the dialogue of normal people.

They have no sense of the value of truth and so have no regard for it but they see that others do value truth. They see this as a weakness in others waiting for them to exploit. And they do. The value of truth is the same as the value of reality. It protects you from delusion and therefore minimises harm in your life. Either you deal with reality or reality will deal with you.

The value of truth to a traditional society is self evident to them because it equates directly with survival. You don't survive in a world if you are befuddled by delusions and falsehoods. This is fundamentally why when psychopaths run a society, they bring harm to it. They readily indulge in lies, deception and delusion.

A tribal society living close to the land has to deal with reality to survive. A psychopath in our society does not (for a while). He can pass the unwelcome and inevitable consequences of his unco-operative and destructive behaviour onto other people. It's called “blaming the victim” amongst other things. The general society absorbs the cost.

But Truth equals Reality equals Survival. What was true for 'pre-historic' societies remains true for us today. A society built on lies will fall. The fall can be staved off for a while through expansion as our modern day empires have done. But, like a giant Ponzi scheme, reality eventually catches up with the construction of lies and there is an inevitable day of reckoning.

Psychopaths soon realise that other people have no idea of their duplicitous and destructive natures or even of the existence of psychopathy. This is their single greatest advantage over the rest of us and their single greatest threat to the rest of us. We keep dealing with them as if they are normal and have normal emotions and motivations. They do not. They are 'invisible' to us in many ways. Making them visible is the imperative task before us today.

Over time, psychopaths moved into the hierarchies and used them to manipulate the people caught up in the lower ranks (the general population) for their own purposes. Psychopaths are able to recognise each other because of their ability to recognise 'normal' human beings and so they can spot their fellow psychopaths. This recognition leads to them promoting each other for preference over normal people. Their deceitful behaviour is much more acceptable to their psychopathic peers and they can be relied upon to be compromised and “to do a deal” when required. This co-operation between them together with their innate ruthlessness, is how all hierarchies, be they governmental, political, martial, commercial, academic or religious, eventually become stacked with psychopaths at the upper levels.

When psychopaths promote each other, they also promote deceitfulness and incompetence. This is largely why bureaucracies are so maddening and frustrating to deal with. Hierarchies are rarely meritocracies.

Psychopaths will compete with each other at times as they are totally self-centred. But, more often, they will co-operate to jointly exploit the rest of us. Think 'mafia families' or business cartels and syndicates or paedophile rings in churches. The hierarchies combined in time and became 'the system'. The three historical pillars of 'the system' are the moneylenders, the lawyers and the priests; the very three groups, not surprisingly, that Jesus singled out for scathing criticism. Nothing has changed.

This system determined the culture and the culture has determined the world view of the people. Religions were corrupted or invented afresh and laws were enacted to cement the cultural mindset, the world view, in place. Money is the invisible agent used to great effect to enact discrimination and privilege. Secret 'invitation only' societies were formed by the bankers principally and became the hidden matrix that co-ordinates the psychopathic behaviour across the various hierarchies and leads to overall control by a few.

The secret societies together with the so-called 'intelligence agencies' today use money, sex, drugs and the provision of privileges and status as inducements and material for blackmail to control individuals within this network. The 'sex', by the way, very much includes paedophilia as it is by far the best threat and control mechanism. It also does the most harm to society through the generations for those intent on causing as much harm to our species as possible.

The culture we have in the world today is exploitative at every turn and so is clearly psychopathic. Though it is hard to see it in those terms in just the same way as water is hard for a fish to see or to be aware of. It has always been around us and the generations before us who have taught us. We have never experienced anything different and therefore do not know of anything different.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn wrote a short novel called, “One Day In The Life Of Ivan Denisovitch”. It is a perfect demonstration of how we as humans quickly adapt to unnatural and even extreme circumstances and normalise them to survive. The psychopaths have used this normalising survival technique against us and we don't even know it. So individualism and competition between us which should be anathema to us are embraced as normal. We are educated from birth in a way of thinking that supports the priorities of the psychopaths that run our society. We have been conditioned to accept a psychopathic society and do not think twice about it because, for the most part, we simply do not see it for what it is. It's 'normal' to us and 'normal' is too easily interpreted as pre-ordained or seen as the natural order.

Following are some basic but false concepts that do not appear in traditional societies (that were models of survival) but are an integral part of our psychopathic civilisation and lead to widespread suffering. They are:-

-that one person's life is more valuable than another's. Take our pay scales for instance. An hour of one person's time, i.e. one hour of one person's life, may be worth $1000, another's $10, another's $1 or even $0:01;

-that violence is something that only wayward citizens or non-state actors or a foreign state can perpetrate.

-that home governments and their agents, police, courts etc., do not indulge in violence. They dispense justice or punishment instead. Or perhaps 'righteous violence' which is God ordained.

-that punishment is not violence (which it clearly is)

-that punishment is the correct way to deal with crime. The 'punishment thinking' says that in order to 'fix' the problem of violence in our society, the answer is to create more violence (but called punishment) in the name of that same society; and

-that crimes are only committed by criminals

In fact, no one can live without breaking laws. And our governments are employed full time year after year creating evermore laws and rarely repealing any. So we are all criminals by this way of thinking and increasingly so. And as a corollary, increasingly, interactions with 'law enforcement agents' are initiated on the presumption that we are potential criminals. Visit any airport to take a flight, for instance. As a result of all this we are increasingly living in a police state which equates to a psychopathic state. All of this can be viewed as the psychopaths in charge of our institutions projecting their state of mind onto the rest of us.

There was a time in pre-history when the psychopaths were not in charge. Those 'pre-historic' societies viewed themselves as a whole as well as a collection of individuals. Their survival depended on taking this 'holistic' view and holding it as primary because individuals died, of course, but the society lived on.

So the physical, psychological and spiritual health of the society was paramount. Individuals were always seen as part of the group. If one individual suffered, they all suffered. Therefore the notion of healing the effects of violence on an individual and therefore the group by inflicting more violence another individual of the group would be totally nonsensical to a traditional or tribal society. Why would you want to hurt yourselves?

As a species, we evolved and survived with this understanding of mutuality. Restoration or restitution was the aim and the purpose was to lead to healing. Revenge, the basis of punishment, just brings more damage and destruction to the society. And that is where we are today. Living as law-breakers in a 'lawful' society that is bent on self destruction.

Many anarchists, in defending their philosophy, will quickly point to the lunacy of the rationalisation that many 'authorities' use to justify their imposition of 'order' upon the rest of us with its attendant laws by saying that people need laws to govern their behaviour because we are not competent to live together without them. But if that is true, say the anarchists, who is competent to frame and then administer these laws? Members of the same species that is not competent to live without oversight? Stated in this manner, it is easy to see that what is being proposed is not only insane but, in fact, a recipe for disaster. And so it has turned out to be.

The only members of a society that cannot be left to live without constant supervision are, in fact, the psychopaths; the very ones who insist on imposing 'law and order' on the rest of us who don't need it. Indeed, we function far better without it.

One of the psychopathic and dysfunctional premises of our society is an extension of the 'punishment principal'; that righteous violence ('justified' violence enacted by authorities) is the solution to violence and that its efficacy is determined by quantity. If a burst of return righteous violence did not resolve a particular violent situation, the response is usually not that violence should not have been used but, rather, that not enough violence was used. The 'answer' then is evermore violence. This is psychopathic insanity. Listen to any US president since Kennedy for an example of that. Look to the insanity perpetrated on Iraq and that is ongoing.

Violence begets more violence. Psychopaths are aware of this more than anyone else. Hence, their constant use of 'false flag' operations to start wars and other conflicts. Hence, also the ongoing baiting of Russia.

When talking about violence, it is necessary to define the term. My definition of violence is any amount of force that exceeds that minimum required to defend oneself or those one is clearly responsible for. So force is not only permissible but necessary at times and will not beget more violence if it is limited to defence. In fact, it will minimise future violence.

It is my belief that we all understand the appropriateness of defensive force. Perhaps it is in our genes given it's necessity for our survival and the length of time of our evolution. But if one is to go past defensive force into the realm violence, more violence will result. Again, I think we intuitively know when disproportionate force is used because we become outraged pretty quickly whether it is toward us or others. That is our response to the violence used against the people of Eastern Ukraine at the moment. The critical issue always is who gets to control our outrage, ourselves or the psychopaths?

The reasoning behind punishment and violence is that violence will be deterred by greater counter violence. Violence renamed as “punishment” is usually reserved for an authority enacting violence. That is the basis and justification of our entire legal system, our 'defence industries', the whole martial mentality and our reverence of 'might is right'.

We are hard wired to follow the models of our parents and elders. So in a modern society, citizens model themselves on the behaviour of our governments and authorities. If governments model violence, thieving and hypocrisy through their behaviour, then we can't be surprised when a section of the public becomes violent and rationalises lying and thieving to itself.

The American public would not have been suckered into the 'bait and switch' scam that was the invasion of Afghanistan and then Iraq if it did not believe in the efficacy of punishment and righteous violence. The American public are not alone, by any means, in the world in their belief in righteous violence.

Many are calling on Putin and Russia now to step into the mess that is Ukraine. A mess brought about entirely by the economic and physical violence of a bunch of psychopaths - the international bankers (once again!) through their agents, the American neocons who are running the American Administration and the Ukrainian oligarchs and political patsies such as Yatsenyuk and Tyahnybok, a Jewish banker and a Nazi. Nice bedfellows! And not the first time that combination has come together, either.

These sorts of alignments are puzzling to people if they don't realise that psychopaths do not have ideologies/religions or real alliances. They only use them to get what they want, which is always more power.

The challenge for Putin is to stop the violence but by not adding to it as the bankers would wish him to do. The bankers are losing their power base as the US dollar goes into decline through lowered demand for it caused by Russia and China moving away from using US dollars for their international trade. The bankers' answer to challenges or resistance has always been violence or the threats of violence. Witness their attacks on the oil producing countries that have had the temerity to want to sell their oil in currencies other than the US dollar and the torrent of vilification aimed at Russia and China today.

These psychopathic bankers have cowered the whole world through these threats and wars. But now Russia is not cowering in the face of threats and, most frustrating for the bankers, they are not responding with violence or war.

I said in a previous essay that I expected Putin to intervene in Ukraine only when it was clear that the death toll and damage involved in any intervention would be markedly less than if Russia did not intervene militarily. I said it would be purely defensive. By using only that force required to defend their fraternal Ukrainian population under attack and no more, Putin will ensure that the violence is not added to and that it will not escalate out of control. At least not by his doing.

The bankers do not want this, of course. They are trying to provoke a disproportionate response and that is one of the reasons why they are gradually increasing the provocations and outrages. Military interventions do not normally lend themselves to be infinitely graduated. They must start at a certain level of force and damage and so they can easily be disproportionate and go beyond defence and into the region of violence. Which, of course, would suit the bankers just fine. But Putin is not giving them that satisfaction. So currently we have lots of trolls on the net trying to whip up support for a Russian intervention to put pressure on Putin.

The Kiev regime will continue to increase their violence and perpetrate more war crimes until they are either defeated by the Novorossian defence forces, or they suffer mutiny from their own armed thugs or they escalate to the point that they cross the line where military intervention from Russia will be purely defensive, decreasing violence instead of increasing it. Which ever way, the bankers will lose. No propaganda coup and no justification for NATO to counter attack because the Russian intervention will be seen for what it is; defensive and dare I say, “humanitarian intervention”.

Meanwhile, Russia will pursue every diplomatic avenue and every negotiating opportunity. And not cynically, either. Kiev, Obama and the bankers will continue to avoid or torpedo every opportunity negotiate or de-escalate while cynically saying they are pursuing peace. But none of this is happening outside the gaze of the world and most importantly, not outside of the gaze of the world's nations' leaders. Russia and China are offering the nations of the world an alternative to the psychopathic Anglo/Zionist regime that has bullied and exploited them for generations.

Russia and China are very determinedly chopping out the legs from under the bankers. The bankers rely on the monopoly of the $US in world trade, the monopoly of their world bank clearance system (SWIFT), the paradigm that violence trumps all, that there is no other way to co-operate in international relations without the implied threat of violence. The bankers also rely on the co-operation, or at least the non-interference of other sections of the elite, the industrialists, the Vatican and the European aristocracy, all of whom the bankers have been pooping on in recent times. An article from three years ago

Russia is undercutting all these props and will leave the Anglo/Zionist empire exposed and friendless in the world. And there is nothing the bankers can do about it. Their psychopathic natures, which worship and rely on coercion, impel them to use more and more threats and more and more violence but this will only hasten their eventual and inevitable end.

Vladimir Putin and Russia are modelling a prosperous, co-operative, inclusive world that relies on mutual benefit and not on violence to function. The choice is a no-brainer.

Daniel Quinn in his novel, “Ishmael” talks about how tribal societies fought from time to time conducting raids and carrying off booty but that they never engaged in what we would recognise as 'war'. They did not engage in genocide or the wholesale destruction of a culture as our civilisation does. He proposes that if one tribe were to do that, all surrounding tribes would have been forced to combine to eradicate the offending tribe that had gone rogue just as they did to psychopathic individuals within their tribes.

They would have needed to do that to ensure the survival of all the other tribes. Because, of course, if a tribe were successful at genocide, they would not stop. The nature of psychopathy is that it is incapable of imposing limits on itself.

So, genocide was just one of those things that was, to them, self evidently self destructive. And I propose that this is why indigenous peoples all over the world were overcome because they did not recognise the extent of the threat they were faced with. They did not comprehend, till it was too late, that a whole nation could be psychopathic in its behaviour and that this psychopathic culture meant to rob them of everything and exterminate them all. The indigenous peoples sought accommodation with the psychopaths to their cost. It is always a mistake.

Wounded Knee (source)

We face that exact same situation today and we have the same handicap of non-comprehension and the same natural inclination to find an accommodation. We need to recognise, as Vladimir Putin shows all the signs of doing, that the psychopathic bankers that run the US together with the UK and israel are an existential threat to the whole of our species on earth. We need to recognise this before we join the fate of all the indigenous peoples of the world. We need to recognise it for the sake of succeeding generations.

We also need to recognise above all two things - that battling violence with more violence i.e. seeking revenge, is self defeating and playing into the psychopaths' hands and also that there is only one battle to be fought and that is between the psychopaths that infest every nation and culture and the rest of us.

So far, Putin's Russia is showing us the way including the rehabilitation of oppressed minorities. This is our future. There will be no other future.

Psychopaths and Power: Hand, Meet Glove Part 2 continued here


McJ's picture


Excellent James! You did a great job of explaining how the roots of our "civilization" spawned psychopathic thinking and how it permeates all areas of the current culture. It's a good strike at the head of snake (ie the pyschopaths that rule us). smiling It is so vitally important that people understand the who, what's and whys behind the seemingly endless and horrendous challenges we are facing. As they say, awareness is the first step and understanding where the problems are coming from (ie. defining the problem) gives us a good starting point to tackle them.

Here is a link to a good article about wholistic medicine. I thought it had some interesting correlations to your post and it seems to me the wholistic approach to personal healing and well being might make a good working model for healing of the greater society.

Looking forward to more.... smiling


Thanks for the kind words, McJ. The Sott article you linked is, indeed, a good one and you are right! The same approach to government and economics has been applied to medicine - specialize (divide and conquer) and hide the critical information.

Just as you will never solve economic problems till you understand banking, you cannot solve medical problems without a thorough knowledge of nutrition. In the specialties of medicine and economics, these two topics (nutrition and banking respectively) are not taught; i.e. either insufficiently or not at all.

Specialists, by definition, do not know much outside their specialised fields and so cannot become aware of what is missing in their understanding. Because there is so much they don't know, they refer to other specialists assuming that they know whatever it is that it missing. It becomes a merry-go-round, albeit a profitable one for some.

George Bernard Shaw once said that a specialist is someone who learns more and more about less and less until he knows everything about nothing!

Come to think of it, Shaw said something else which might be applicable here - "All professions (doctors, lawyers, etc) are conspiracies against the laity."

McJ's picture

Me right

cool Hehe. It's good to be right.

Good analysis

James, I like your analysis... makes a lot of sense. And you're correct about there being no study, no attention to the 'group' psycopathy. I had not given any thought to it myself; your article is very thought-provoking, and I find myself reading it several times for various points. Looking forward to Part II. Again, thanks for your efforts. (Your essay needs more coverage!)

More coming!

Thank you, Crone. I'm glad you found it stimulating. I'm looking forward to Part II, too. smiling It has taken me longer than I thought it would but it's in draft and shouldn't be more than a couple of days.

It is a little more on psychopathy itself and also on how we can use this knowledge individually and collectively.


Crone, if you haven't read Daniel Quinn's novel, "Ishmael", I think you will find it well worth your while. It doesn't cover psychopathy at all but if you read it with a basic knowledge of psychopathy, I'm sure you'll find it very stimulating if not startling!

this is one of your best

Hi James.

Better late than never: this is, in my opinion, one of your best pieces ever.

I say this because of the depth of analysis and the simplicity of the presentation.

If a writer can explain a complex situation in simple terms, that's one sure sign of mastery of the subject matter. And in this regard, I think this post is a good as anything I've ever read from you, or from anybody else for that matter.

Thank you very much, WP. When

Thank you very much, WP. When it comes to investigative and analytical writing, I hold no one to be superior to your good self. So I regard your words as high praise, indeed!

I have just reread my article to see what you are talking about smiling It's long isn't it? Still, I guess a span of 100,000 generations takes more than a few words. I am very conscious of great indigenous leaders that have pointed the way for us whenever I think about this subject. Dublinmick has highly recommended "Sorrow In Our Heart:The Life of Tecumseh" by Alan Eckert to me and I must make time to read it. I don't think we need new wisdom but rather new ways to apply wisdom that has been refined over countless generations.

There is a Part 2 to this and is in draft form and it is still coming (seven weeks later)!!! I should go back and fix the typos in the first part before then, though.

Anyway, thank you again smiling

James, you are far too generous ...

but thanks very much in any event.

I am very much looking forward to part 2, whenever you get it ready.

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